Monday, July 22, 2019

で Particle

In Japanese, the de で particle has various functions.
Sunday, July 21, 2019


In Japanese, ra-nuki kotoba ら抜き言葉, "ら-removed speech," refers to a way of talking that omits the ra ら in the potential form of ichidan 一段 verbs, conjugating them like godan 五段 verbs that end in ru る.

For example: tabereru 食べれる is taberareru 食べれる, "able to eat," with the ra ら removed.
Saturday, July 20, 2019


In Japanese, i-nuki kotoba い抜き言葉, "い-removed speech," refers to a way of talking that omits the i い at the start of auxiliary verbs attached to te-form, contracting te-iru ている into te-ru てる, te-iku ていく into te-ku てく, de-iru でいる into de-ru でる, and de-iku でいく into de-ku でく, and so on.

For example: miteru 見てる is a contraction of mite-iru 見てる, "to be seeing."
Friday, July 19, 2019

youkoso ようこそ

In Japanese, youkoso ようこそ means "welcome." It's an expression used when welcoming a guest to a new place, like "welcome to city X" or "welcome to organization Y," and so on.

Manga: Mahou Sensei Negima! 魔法先生 ネギま! (Chapter 1)
  • youkoso ❤
    Welcome ❤
  • Negi-sensei'
    (character name.)

Above, for example, a teacher is welcomed into a classroom with youkoso.
Thursday, July 18, 2019

へ vs. に

In Japanese, the e へ particle and the ni に particle are similar in that they can be both used to mark a place for a movement verb.
  • gakkou ni iku
    To go to school.
  • gakkou e iku
    (same meaning.)

However, there are differences between e へ and ni に that can be noted.
Wednesday, July 17, 2019

へ Particle

In Japanese, the eparticle marks the direction "toward" which an action occurs, or simply means "toward." It's spelled as he へ, but pronounced like e.
Tuesday, July 16, 2019

naku wa nai なくはない

In Japanese, naku wa nai なくはない is the i-adjective or auxiliary adjective nai ない in the adverbial form, plus the wa は particle, plus the auxiliary nai ない again.

If the first nai is an auxiliary, ~naku wa nai ~なくはない means something "is indeed" somehow. If the first nai isn't an auxiliary, then it depends on what the phrase is saying. The exact grammar has been explained in the article about ~ku wa ~くは.

nakunai なくない

In Japanese, nakunai なくない means "is not not" or "there is not no" or "[I] don't have no." It's a double negative, so it translates to the positives "is," "there is," and "[I] have."

Grammatically, it'a the i-adjective or negative auxiliary nai ない, inflected to the adverbial form, naku なく, plus the negative auxiliary nai ない. So it's nai twice.

~ku wa nai ~くはない

In Japanese, ~ku wa nai ~くはない is the adverbial form of an i-adjective, plus the wa は particle, plus the negative hojo-keiyoushi 補助形容詞 nai ない. Or it might be kuwanai 食わない, "won't eat."

Basically, ~ku wa nai is used to affirm something "is not" a given adjective.
  • warui?

    Is [it] bad?
  • waruku wa nai kedo..
    Bad, [it] is not but...

See ~ku wa ~くは for details about the grammar.

Manga: Mairimashita! Iruma-kun 魔入りました!入間くん (Chapter 12, 入間の“夢”)
  • Context: a human boy ends up in the demon world.
  • ningen-kai ni modoritaku wa nai no desu ka?
    Don't [you] want to return to the demon world?
    • modoritai
      Want to return.
    • modoritakunai
      Not want to return.

~ku wa ~くは

In Japanese, ~ku wa ~くは is the adverbial form of an i-adjective plus the wa は particle. This can work just like ~te wa ては, separating the adjective and an auxiliary into topic-focus, or just mark the adverb as topic.
Monday, July 15, 2019

nakya なきゃ

In Japanese, nakya なきゃ is often used to say you "must" do something. It can also be used to say "if not something, something else."
  • ganbaranakya
    [I] must work hard. Try my best. Put effort.
    • ganbaru 頑張る
      To work hard. Try your best. Etc.
  • yasukunakya urenai
    If [it's] not cheap, [it] can't be sold.
    • yasui 安い

Grammatically, it's either a contraction of nakereba なければ, the conditional ba-form of the i-adjective nai ない, "nonexistent," which can be suffixed to verbs and adjectives to create their negative forms.

This nakya なきゃ is almost synonymous with nakucha なくちゃ, which contracts nakute wa なくては instead.

~kya ~きゃ

In Japanese, ~kya ~きゃ is a contraction of ~kereba ~ければ, the conditional ba-form of i-adjectives. Or some sort of fangirling shriek: kyaa! きゃー!

nakucha なくちゃ

In Japanese, nakucha なくちゃ is normally used to say that you "must" do something. For example:
  • ganbaranakucha
    [I] must word hard. Try my best. Put effort.
    • ganbaru 頑張る
      To work hard. Try your best. Etc.
  • nigenakucha
    [I] must run away.
    • nigeru 逃げる
      To run away.

Grammatically, it's a contraction of nakute wa なくては, which is the te-form of the i-adjective nai ない, "nonexistent," plus the wa は particle. See the article about ~te wa ~ては for details.

~cha ~ちゃ

In Japanese, ~cha ~ちゃ is a contraction of ~te wa ~ては. Although sometimes it means "tea," ocha お茶.

~te wa ~ては

In Japanese, ~te wa ては is the te-form of a verb plus the wa は particle. This can have two different functions.


Just like how in English "I am" is contracted to "I'm," "is not" to "isn't," "will not" to "won't," and "don't know" to "dunno," Japanese has contractions, too. For reference, in this article I'll list the Japanese contractions.
Sunday, July 14, 2019

Null Particle

In Japanese, the "null particle," "zero particle," is an invisible, unpronounced, and basically imaginary particle that often replaces the particles wa, ga, wo, and ni, in all sorts of phrases. Literally, it's using "no particle," mu-joshi 無助詞, or just omitting the particle.

For example, in kankei ga aru 関係がある, kankei is marked as the subject by the ga が particle. However, the phrase is often just: kankei aru 関係ある. Since a particle is supposed to come after kankei, but isn't there, we call that the null particle.

Symbolically, the empty set symbol ∅ or the similar-looking Greek letter phi φ is used to refer to the null particle during analysis: kankei φ aru 関係φある, the null particle φ marks kankei.

Contrastive は

In Japanese, the contrastive wa は refers to the wa は particle when it marks the contrastive topic. Normally, the wa は particle just marks the (non-contrastive) topic, hence why this distinction is important.

Manga: Machikado Mazoku まちカドまぞく (Volume 1, Page 113, 普通に加熱することの難しさ)
Wednesday, July 10, 2019

は vs. が

In this article, I'll explain the difference between wa は and ga が, the two most confusing particles in all Japanese.