Japanese with Anime

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Sunday, July 10, 2022

you 用 - Meaning in Japanese

In Japanese, you means various things: it refers to something you have to do, a "task" or "business" you have to care of; the "use" of a thing in doing a task; "for what task" is a thing suitable, its "purpose;" and to refer to the usefulness of a thing in the sense of how many uses it has, what tasks it can do, its "purposefulness."(日本国語大辞典:用)

  • you ga aru
    がある
    [I] have business to do [with you].
    I have something to discuss with you.
  • you ni tatsu
    に立つ
    [This thing] "stands up" to the task.
    [This thing] is useful for doing this task.
  • yourei

    Usage example. Example of use.
  • keiko-you no katana
    稽古の刀
    A sword for use in sparring. A training sword. (e.g. a "wooden sword," bokutou 木刀.)
Sentence examples of you 用.
Manga: Shadows House, シャドーハウス (Chapter 13)
Manga: Shijou Saikyou no Deshi Ken'ichi 史上最強の弟子ケンイチ (Chapter 7)
Manga: Fullmetal Alchemist, Hagane no Renkinjutsushi 鋼の錬金術師 (Chapter 2)
Manga: Holy Land, ホーリーランド (Chapter 6)
Manga: Goblin Slayer, ゴブリンスレイヤー (Chapter 5)
Wednesday, July 6, 2022

wa yo わよ - Meaning in Japanese

In Japanese, wa yo わよ is a combination of two sentence-ending particles: wa, generally used by women, used to voice one's decision, surprise, conclusion, or opinion, and yo, used when correcting someone or informing, alerting them of something. In manga and anime, it's typically used by "rich girl," ojousama お嬢様 characters speaking in polite language: desu wa yo ですわよ, ~masu wa yo ますわよ, ~masen wa yo ませんわよ.

負けませんわよ 時期生徒会副会長になるのはこのわたくしですわ! わ 私だって負けないもん! というか向日葵には負けないからっ うぐぐっ 相変わらず生意気な子ですわ
Manga: Yuru Yuri ゆるゆり (Chapter 7, 長期連載への布石)
Thursday, June 30, 2022

よ Particle

WIP

In Japanese, yo is a particle generally used to call for the listener's attention. It can be used in various ways: as a sentence-ending particle when alerting, correcting, asking, ordering, forbidding, or inviting the listener; as an interjection after someone or something's name to call for them, or mid-sentence to add an emphatic pause after a phrase.

  • chigau yo!
    違う
    [That's wrong]!
    [You got the wrong idea]!
  • kiite yo!
    聞いて
    Hear [me]!
  • ore wa yo, tsuyoi-n-da yo
    俺は、強いんだよ
    I (insert pause here) am strong.
  • kami yo, douka wareware wo o-sukui kudasai!
    、どうか我々救いください!
    God, please save us!
ん よだれたれてるよ ん ああ 制服でしちゃ
Manga: Hinamatsuri ヒナまつり (Chapter 3, 授業参観は突然に)
Tuesday, May 31, 2022

Word Arrows Piercing Characters Through The Chest

In manga and anime, sometimes a character is pierced by arrows symbolizing something harsh that's being said about them, or told them directly. Typically, the arrows go through their chest, and it's just a visual representation of a figure of speech, so nobody dies from being pierced by these, although they may cough blood or bleed or appear to have died temporarily for the sake of comedy..

面倒くさい
Left: Hanako 花子
Right: Yashiro Nene 八尋寧々
Anime: Jibaku Shounen Hanako-kun 地縛少年花子くん (Episode 7)
  • Context: Nene tells Hanako something that pierces through his very core.
  • sore de omotta no, Hanako-kun tte shoujiki chotto mendou-kusai na tte
    それで思ったの 花子くんって正直ちょっと面倒くさいなって
    [So I thought]... Hanako-kun, honestly [you] are a bit of a pain in the ass, [aren't you].
    • mendou-kusai - literally "smells of trouble," in the sense it feels like it takes (too much) effort to handle.
Thursday, April 21, 2022

~koto wo suru ~ことをする - Meaning in Japanese

In Japanese, ~koto wo suruことをする (koto こと, marked by wo, plus suru する) means "to do something that is X" or "to do an X thing," what sort of thing we're doing depends on the adjective or relative clause qualifying koto. It effectively lets you create suru-verbs out of random phrases describing acts so you can conjugate the description like a verb. When the description already ends in a verb to begin with, sometimes the phrase ~koto wo suru just makes the sentence longer.

  • {warui} koto wo suru
    悪いことをする
    To do something [that] {is bad}.
    To do a {bad} thing.
  • sonna koto shitara
    そんなことしたら
    If [you] do something like that...
  • {fudan shinai} koto wo suru
    普段しないことをする
    To do something [that] {[you] normally don't do}.
    To do things [you] {normally don't}.
  • {mahou wo tsukau} koto ga dekiru
    魔法を使うことができる
    To be able to do the thing [that is] {to use magic}.
    To be able to {use magic}.
    • mahou ga tsukaeru
      魔法が使える
      To be able to use magic.
      (same meaning.)

The phrase ~koto ga dekiruことができる is the irregular potential form of ~koto wo suru. The phrase ~koto wo itashimasuことをいたします is a humble speech (kenjougo 謙譲語) variant, while ~koto wo nasaruことをなさる is a honorific speech (sonkeigo 尊敬語) variant. The phrases ~koto suruことする, ~koto dekiruことできる, ~koto itashimasuこといたします, and ~koto nasaruことなさる are null-marked (φ).

Sunday, April 17, 2022

~ku suru ~くする - Meaning in Japanese

In Japanese, ~ku suruくする (~ku ~く adverbial copula plus suru する) means "to make X become Y," "to turn X into Y" when the ~ku morpheme is attached to the stem of an i-adjective; when it's attached to the negative form of a verb (~naku suru ~なくする) it means "to make X stop being Y," or "to make X stop doing Y," in the sense of "X used to do Y, but you made it so X won't do Y anymore." The phrase ~ku dekiru ~くできる is its potential form, and ~ku itashimasu ~くいたします is a humble speech (kenjougo 謙譲語) variant.

  • sora wo {akaku} suru
    くする
    To make the sky become {red}.
    • akai 赤い, i-adjective meaning the color "red."
  • {koukoku wo hyouji shinaku} suru
    広告を表示しなくする
    To make [it] so [that] {[it] doesn't display advertisements}. (it used to show ads, then you did something so that it doesn't show ads anymore.)
    • hyouji shinai 表示しない, "to not display," negative form of the suru-verb hyouji suru 表示する, "to display."
  • {nemurenaku} suru
    眠れなくする
    To make [it] so [that] {[one] can't sleep}.
    • nemurenai 眠れい, "to not be able to sleep," negative form of nemureru 眠れる, "to be able to sleep," potential form of nemuru 眠る, "to sleep."
実は私・・・ブレンドコーヒーには少し自身があってね 味や香りを良くするために5種類のコーヒー豆を使っているんだ それぞれの持ち味を生かせるように工夫を重ねたのが当店のブレンドでね
Manga: Gabriel DropOut, ガヴリールドロップアウト (Chapter 17)
Friday, April 15, 2022

~ku naru ~くなる - Meaning in Japanese

In Japanese, ~ku naruくなる (~ku ~く adverbial copula plus naru なる) means "will become X" or "will be X" when ~ku is attached to the stem of an i-adjective; when it's attached to the negative form a verb (~naku naru ~なくなる), it means "will stop being" or "will stop doing," in the sense of "used to do it, but won't do it anymore" instead.

  • {akaku} naru
    くなる
    To become {red}.
    • akai 赤い is an i-adjective for the color "red."
  • {awanaku} naru
    会わなくなる
    To stop {meeting}. (in the sense of we used to meet, but we won't be meeting anymore.)
    • au 会う, "to meet."
  • {arukenaku} naru
    歩けなくなる
    To stop being {able to walk}.
    • arukeru 歩ける, "to be able to walk," potential form of aruku 歩く, "to walk."
まあ そうかたくなるな 言った通り手伝ってほしいだけなのだ 我が輩の食事を
Manga: Majin Tantei Nougami Neuro 魔人探偵 脳噛ネウロ (Chapter 1, 手【て】)

~ku ~く Adverbial Copula

In Japanese, ~ku is the ending of i-adjectives when conjugated to their ren'youkei 連用形, i.e. the ~ku suffix is the adverbial form of the ~i ~い copula. It's similar to the "~ly" suffix that turns adjectives in adverbs in English, e.g. if sugoi すごい means "incredible," then sugoku すご means "incredibly," although it may translate to the bare form when it expresses the final state of a process. It can also be used to connect multiple adjectives to each other. In rare cases, ~ku is used in a manner similar to a noun describable by the adjective. For example:

  • {karuku} takaku
    叩く
    To hit [something] {lightly}.
    To hit [something] {in a way that is light}.
    (process modification.)
    • karui
      軽い
      Light. As in not "heavy," omoi 重い. Not to be confused with a sparkling "light," hikari 光.
  • {karuku} naru
    なる
    To become {light}.
    (final state.)
  • {{takaku} hayai} kuruma
    速い車
    A car that {{is expensive and} fast}.
    (connective copula.)
    • takai
      高い
      High. (height.)
      Expensive. (price.)
  • tooku φ e nigeru
    逃げる
    To escape to [a place that] is far away.
    (noun-like usage.)
    • tooi
      遠い
      Far. Antonym of chikai 近い, "near."
Examples of the ~ku ~く suffix in Japanese that's the ren'youkei 連用形 of i-adjectives.
Manga: Boku no Hero Academia, 僕のヒーローアカデミア (Chapter 204)
Manga: Doll-Kara, どるから (Chapter 1)
Manga: Jahy-sama wa Kujikenai!, ジャヒー様はくじけない! (Chapter 0.1)
Tuesday, April 12, 2022

~i ~い Copula

In Japanese, ~i is a suffix that functions like a copula, which is found in i-adjectives, giving them their name. For example: kawaii かわいい doesn't mean just "cute," it means "to be cute," and we can separate the morphemes into the stem kawai~ meaning "cute," and ~i meaning "to be." This ~i ~い is sometimes suffixed to random stuff to create new adjectives, and, in rare cases, used adverbially:

  • tekui
    テクい
    Skilled. (as in having "technique," tekunikku テクニック)
    (neologism.)
  • erai muzukashii
    難しい
    Extremely difficult.
    (adverbial usage.)
速い
Manga: One Punch Man, Wanpanman ワンパンマン (Chapter 10)
Monday, April 11, 2022

-u Verbs

In some Japanese textbooks, the term -u verb (or u-verb) means the same thing as a godan verb. Such verbs always end in the ~u vowel in their nonpast form (or dictionary form, shuushikei 終止形), however, they aren't the only ones to do so: ALL Japanese verbs end in the ~u vowel, including, for example, ichidan verbs (-ru verbs), which aren't -u verbs, so not all verbs that end in the ~u vowel are actually -u verbs, making the term extremely confusing for lots of people trying to learn Japanese.(Steffanick, 2010:20)

-ru Verbs

In some Japanese textbooks, the term -ru verb (or ru-verb) means the same thing as an ichidan verb. Such verbs always end in ~ru ~る in their nonpast form (or dictionary form, shuushikei 終止形), however, they aren't the only ones to do so: godan verbs (or -u verbs) can also end in ~ru in nonpast form, which means not every verb that ends in ~ru is a "ru verb," making the term extremely confusing for lots of people trying to learn Japanese.(Steffanick, 2010:20)

-masu Stem

In some Japanese textbooks, the term -masu stem (or masu-stem) refers to what you get when you conjugate a verb to its polite form, which ends in ~masu ~ます, and then remove the ~masu suffix, leaving you with the stem of the conjugation. It refers to the same thing as the term ren'youkei 連用形, except that adjectives don't have a ~masu form, so they don't have a masu-stem. Usually the term is used when talking about adding a different suffix to the masu-stem (ren'youkei). For example:

ichidan verb godan verb
Dictionary form kiru
着る
To wear.
kiru
切る
To cut.
Polite form kimasu
着ます
kirimasu
切ります
masu-stem
or ren'youkei.
ki~
着~
kiri~
切り~
tai-form
(masu-stem + ~tai)
kitai
着たい
To want to wear.
kiritai
切りたい
To want to cut.

Stem

In linguistics, stem (and sometimes root, or base) is the word or part of the word (morpheme) you get when you remove all its suffixes, prefixes, etc., e.g. if you remove ~ing from "dying," you get "die," so "die" is the stem of "dying." What the term means exactly seems to vary from author to author, and these three similar-sounding terms—stem, root, and base—may mean slightly different things when used by the same author. Usually it's used to say that you get the stem by removing suffixes, then you add new suffixes to the stem. In Japanese, some notable stem-related terms are:

  • The term "masu-stem" refers to the ren'youkei 連用形, which is what you get when you remove the ~masu ~ます suffix from a word, e.g.: tabe is the masu-stem of taberu 食べる, "to eat," because it's tabe-masu 食べます without ~masu. You can add ~tai ~たい, for example, to this stem: tabe-tai 食べたい, "[I] want to eat."
  • The stem of i-adjectives is an i-adjective without its ~i ~い suffix, e.g.: sugo~ すご~ from sugoi すごい, "incredible." You can add ~sugiru ~すぎる to this stem: sugo-sugiru すごすぎる, "too incredible."
  • The term consonant-stem verb refers to a godan 五段 verb, because such verbs' stems always end in a consonant. Also called "consonant verb," or "-u verb" because you remove the "-u" vowel to get the vowel-less consonant stem.
  • The term vowel-stem verb refers to an ichidan 一段 verb, because such verbs' stems always end in a vowel. Also called "vowel verb," or "-ru verb" because you remove the "-ru" syllable to get the vowel-ending stem.
Saturday, April 9, 2022

~ru ~る Verb Suffix

In Japanese, ~ru is a syllable found at the end of many verbs in nonpast form (or dictionary form, shuushikei 終止形, rentaikei 連体形). All ichidan 一段 verbs end in ~ru, so they're also called ru-verbs. Some godan 五段 verbs (a.k.a. u-verbs, for they all end in ~u) also end in ~ru. Consequently, the nonpast form is also known as the ru-form. What's interesting is that ~ru ~る is sometimes used to create new verb words as some sort of verbalizing suffix, typically out of gairaigo 外来語 or other loan words written in katakana カタカナ, leading to verbs that are a mix of katakana and hiragana ひらがな, like:(some examples from news.nicovideo.jp)

  • memoru
    メモる
    To take note of. (from memo メモ, a "note.")
  • misuru
    ミスる
    To make a mistake. (omae no misu da! お前のミスだ!, "that was your miss (mistake)!")
  • toraburu
    トラブる
    To get into trouble. (from "trouble," toraburu トラブル.)
    • To LOVEる is the title of a manga and anime series that's a pun on this word. It's read toraburu とらぶる, "to" as to と, "love" as its katakanization rabu ラブ, and lastly the ~ru suffix, which means "to love"-ru is a verb in the title, i.e. literally "to 'to love'."
  • tenparu
    テンパる
    To be one tile away from winning. (in mahjong 麻雀マージャン, which is kind of a card game but with "tiles," hai 牌, where you have to form a pattern to win, the term tenpai 聴牌 テンパイ refers to being one tile away from completing the pattern and winning the round.)
    To be frustrated. To be at one's wits' end.
  • guguru
    ググる
    To google. (from "Google," guuguru グーグル)
  • saboru
    サボる
    To skip work. (from French "sabotage," sabotaaju サボタージュ)
ケンカ 人数 多い ちょっと待てや 今ググってるから
Manga: Gokushufudou 極主夫道 (Chapter 8)
Friday, April 8, 2022

Flat Adverbs

In grammar, a flat adverb is an adverb that looks like an adjective, or, more specifically: it refers to taking a word that has both an adjective form and an adverbial form, and using its adjective form (instead of the adverbial one) to express the adverbial meaning. In English, adjectives become adverbs through the "~ly" suffix, so saying "it went really bad" instead of "it went really badly" would be using "bad" as a flat adverb.(Eversoll, 2014:1) In Japanese, a similar phenomenon occurs with a few intensifying adjectives like sugoi すごい, whose adverbial form (ren'youkei 連用形) would be sugoku すごく, that are nevertheless used in the adjective form to express their adverbial function sometimes.

Anime character wearing shirt saying Sugoi Dekai
Character: Uzaki Hana 宇崎花
Anime: Uzaki-chan wa Asobitai! 宇崎ちゃんは遊びたい! (Episode 1)
  • Context: an anime girl with a lip fang and a shirt spelling in romaji:
  • {sugoi} dekai
    すごいでかい
    {Incredibly} big.
    • {sugoku} dekai
      すごでかい
      (same meaning.)