Tuesday, December 10, 2019

mizenkei 未然形

In Japanese, the mizenkei 未然形 is one of the six basic inflectable forms of verbs and adjectives. It doesn't mean anything on its own, and acts as an intermediary step to construct more complex forms.

For example, in yomanai 読まない, "doesn't read," and yomareru 読まれる, "to be read," the yoma~ 読ま~ is the mizenkei of yomu 読む, "to read."

Conjugation

For reference, how to conjugate the mizenkei:

Mizenkei Conjugation Table
~(sa)seru
~(ra)reru
~nu (~n)
~zu
~nai~(yo)u
Irregular Verbs
kuru
くる
ko~
こ~
suru
する
sa~
さ~
se~
せ~
shi~
し~
Godan Verbs
kau
買う
kawa~
買わ~
kao~
買お~
kaku
書く
kaka~
書か~
kako~
書こ~
oyogu
泳ぐ
oyoga~
泳が~
oyogo~
泳ご~
korosu
殺す
korosa~
殺さ~
koroso~
殺そ~
katsu
勝つ
kata~
勝た~
kato~
勝と~
shinu
死ぬ
shina~
死な~
shino~
死の~
asobu
遊ぶ
asoba~
遊ば~
asobo~
遊ぼ~
yomu
読む
yoma~
読ま~
yomo~
読も~
kiru
切る
kira~
切ら~
kiro~
切ろ~
Ichidan Verbs
kiru
着る
ki~
着~
taberu
食べる
tabe~
食べ~
Adjectives
kawaii
可愛い
kawaikaro~
可愛かろ~
kirei na
綺麗な
kirei daro~
綺麗だろ~
Jodoushi 助動詞
masu
ます
mase~
ませ~
masho~
ましょ~
desu
です
desho~
でしょ~

Note that different jodoushi 助動詞 suffixes use different forms, but they're all called mizenkei. For example, yomou 読もう, "let's read," is the mizenkei yomo~ plus the jodoushi ~u.

Also note that for ichidan verbs, the mizenkei is identical to other forms, and whether it's mizenkei or not depends on the suffix. For example: tabenai 食べない, "to not eat," has the mizenkei tabe~, but in tabetai 食べたい, "want to eat," the tabe~ is the ren'youkei 連用形 instead.

Usage

For reference, which suffixes the mizenkei is used with.

Negative Form

The mizenkei comes before the jodoushi ~nai ~ない to form the negative form.
  • kaka-nai
    書かない
    To not write.
  • tabe-nai
    食べない
    To not eat.
  • shi-nai
    しない
    To not do.
  • ko-nai
    来ない
    To not come.

The negative form of adjectives isn't derived from the mizenkei, but from the ren'youkei instead. For example, kawaikunai 可愛くない, "not cute," is the ren'youkei kawaiku plus ~nai ~ない, which isn't a jodoushi in this case, but a hojo-keiyoushi 補助形容詞 instead.

Similarly, kire denai 綺麗でない, "not pretty," has the hojo-keiyoushi ~nai, not the jodoushi ~nai.

Passive Form, Potential Form

The mizenkei also forms the passive form and potential form with the jodoushi ~rareru ~られる in ichidan verbs, and ~reru ~れる in godan verbs. The mizenkei of suru する in this case is sa~ さ~.
  • kaka-reru
    書かれる
    To be written. (passive.)
    To be able to write. (potential.)
  • tabe-rareru
    食べられる
    To be eaten. (passive.)
    To be able to write. (potential.)
  • sa-reru
    される
    To be done. (passive.)
  • ko-rareru
    来られる
    To be able to come. (potential.)

A few notes:

The form above can also be used in other ways. For example, korareru can mean just a polite way to say "to come," without being passive or potential.

In general, kakareru isn't used as potential. The potential verb kakeru 書ける is used instead. Sometimes the ra ら is removed in taberareru, turning it into tabereru 食べれる, which only has the potential meaning.

Historically, the potential form of suru する would be se-rareru せられる, but that's rarely used in modern Japanese. The word sa-reru される may be used as potential, but that rarely happens, too. The normal way to say the potential form of suru する is the verb dekiru できる.[れる(られる)/エる/できる - dictionary.goo.ne.jp, accessed 2019-12-10]

The ~masu ~ます jodoushi doesn't have a passive form, so it doesn't have a mizenkei that connects to the passive jodoushi. Instead, to say "to do" in the passive polite, you say the passive sareru される, "to be done," and then add ~masu to that, saremasu されます.

The same applies to potential verbs: kakemasu 書けます, "to be able to write (polite)."

Causative Form

The mizenkei also forms the causative form with the jodoushi ~saseru ~させる in ichidan verbs, and ~seru せる in godan verbs. The mizenkei of suru する in this case is sa~ さ~.
  • kaka-seru
    書かせる
    To cause [someone] to write [something].
    To let [someone] write [something].
    To force [someone] to write [something].
  • tabe-saseru
    食べさせる
    To cause [someone] to eat [something].
    To let [someone] eat [something].
    To force [someone] to eat [something].
  • sa-seru
    させる
    To cause [someone] to do [something].
    To let [someone] eat [something].
    To force [someone] to eat [something].
  • ko-saseru
    来させる
    To cause [something] to come [somewhere].
    To let [someone] come [somewhere].
    To force [someone] to come [somewhere].

The causative form of kuru 来る is ko-saseru させる. The causative form of kitasu 来す, "to produce a result," is kitasa-seru きたさせる. They end up being written the same way, but read differently, because they're different words.

The ~masu ~ます jodoushi doesn't have a causative form, so, instead, just say the causative form of a verb, like tabesaseru, and add ~masu to that, tabesasemasu 食べさせます.

Volitional Form

The mizenkei also forms the volitional form with the jodoushi ~you ~よう in ichidan verbs, and ~u ~う in godan verbs. The mizenkei of suru する in this case is shi~ し~, and of godan verbs it ends in the ~o vowel, not ~a.
  • kako-u
    書こう
    Let's write.
  • tabe-you
    食べよう
    Let's eat.
  • shi-you
    しよう
    Let's do.
  • ko-you
    来よう
    Let's come.

Although the easiest way to translate this is "let's," it's also used in other ways.

For example: ashita gakkou ni ikou to omotta 明日学校に行こうと思った, "[I] thought of going to school tomorrow." Here, the speaker isn't trying to convince anyone to go to school, they're going alone.

The word ikou is used because, although the speaker has made their decision, the action didn't occur yet, they didn't "go" yet, so it's still a hypothetical situation in the future.

This form is called "volitional form" because most of the time the hypothetical future is what the speaker wishes to happen, their volition, but it can be used in ways without volition too. For example: nani ga arou to 何があろうと, "[no matter] what happens, [I'll do something]."

Furthermore, adjectives do have this form.
  • donna ni kawaikarou to
    どんなに可愛かろうと
    [No matter] how cute [it] is, [I'll do something].
  • donna ni kirei darou to
    どんなに綺麗だろうと
    [No matter] how pretty [it] is, [I'll do something].

The desu です copula has this form as well.
  • hontou ni sou darou ka?
    本当にそうだろうか?
    Is that really so?
  • hontou ni sou deshou ka?
    本当にそうでしょうか?
    (same meaning, but polite.)

Since the ~u ~う jodoushi doesn't conjugate like an ichidan verb, we can't just slap ~masu ~ます at it like how we did with ~(ra)reru and ~(sa)reru. Since we can't add ~masu to ~u, this time we add ~u to ~masu instead, through the mizenkei ~masho~ ~ましょ~.
  • benkyou shiyou
    勉強しよう
    Let's study.
  • benkyou shimashou
    勉強しましょう
    (same meaning, but polite.)

The addition of ~u ~う turns the preceding ~o vowel into a long vowel, and sometimes long vowels are pronounced differently from what you'd expect, as short vowels instead. Consequently the ~u ~う disappears.

That's how you get daro だろ, desho でしょ, and masho まし, meaning the same thing as darou, deshou, and mashou.

To elaborate: daro~ is the mizenkei, which doesn't mean anything. Then, daro~ plus ~u forms the volitional form, darou, which does mean something. Then, some dude pronounces it as daro instead, without ~u, and it looks like the mizenkei, but technically it isn't the mizenkei, because the mizenkei doesn't mean anything, and what the dude is saying does mean something, so it can't be the mizenkei, therefore, it must be the meaningful darou being shortened into daro. Does that make sense for you?

To make matters more complicated yet, darou and deshou can be used to express something you're pondering about (how? why?), or to seek confirmation from the listener (yes or no), but daro and desho tend to be used only to seek confirmation, so they aren't even always interchangeable.
  • sora wa naze aoi no darou?
    空はなぜ青いのだろう
    Why is the sky blue, I wonder?
    • Rayleigh scattering. Source: Aldnoah Zero.
  • sora wa naze aoi no daro?
    空はなぜ青いのだろ?
    (obviously, anyone can understand what you mean, but people don't normally convey their deep, profound ponderings in such short-vowel'd way.)

Before ~ぬ

The mizenkei also comes before the jodoushi ~nu ~ぬ, which also forms a negative form. In this case, the verb suru する conjugates to se せ instead.
  • kaka-nu
    書かぬ
    To not write.
  • tabe-nu
    食べぬ
    To not eat.
  • se-nu
    せぬ
    To not do.
  • ko-nu
    来ぬ
    To not come.

Note: kuru 来る only has one mizenkei: ko こ, therefore this form must be konu . When it's read kinu instead, that's a different thing, it means "came," in the past, and it's not the mizenkei, it's the ren'youkei 連用形 of kuru. [夏は来(こ)ぬ夏は来(き)ぬの違いって何ですか??? - detail.chiebukuro.yahoo.co.jp, accessed 2019-12-10]

This form is seldom used as-is in modern Japanese, but there are two cases where it does show up with some frequency.

Before ~ん

A contraction of ~nu ~ぬ is ~n ~ん. For example, the mizenkei of masu ます is mase~ ませ~, plus ~nu ~ぬ you get masenu ませぬ, then contracted you get masen ません.

That's why the negative of the polite kakimasu is kakimasen, not kakimasanai.

Similarly, the following phrases all follow the same sort of contraction:
  • shiranu しらぬ
    shiran しらん
    [I] don't know.
    Dunno.
  • yurushi wa senu 許しはせぬ
    yurushi wa sen 許しはせん
    Forgiving, [I] won't do.
    [I] won't forgive [it].
  • sore wa sasenu それはさせぬ
    sore wa sasen それはさせん
    [I] won't let [you] do [that].

Before ~ねば

The conditional ~ba ~ば form of ~nu ~ぬ, which is ~neba ~ねば, also comes after the mizenkei.
  • nantoka seneba naran
    なんとかせねばならん
    If not do something won't become. (literally.)
    Must do something.
  • nantoka shinakereba naranai
    なんとかしなければならない
    (same meaning.)

Before ~ず

The mizenkei form also comes before ~zu ~ず, which translates to "without doing something," and is grammatically related to ~nu ~ぬ, so the mizenkei is exactly the same.
  • kaka-zu
    書かず
    Without writing.
  • tabe-zu
    食べず
    Without eating.
  • se-zu
    せず
    Without doing.
  • ko-zu
    来ず
    Without coming.

This one is most often seen in the expression inochi shirazu 命知らず, "not knowing of life," which means reckless, not considering the mortal danger of doing something. In other words: most main characters of shounen anime.

Syntactically, this form outputs a noun, not an adverb, so you need the adverbial copula ni in order to modify a verb with it.
  • nanimo kangaenai
    何も考えない
    To not think anything.
  • {nanimo kangaezu ni} koudou suru
    何も考えずに行動する
    To act {without thinking anything}.

Sometimes it shows up without the ni に. It happens when there's a comma after ~zu, or at least there could be a comma after ~zu, but nobody likes commas, so there's no comma, but there could be one.

The word ~masezu ~ませず should be grammatically correct, but as a rule of thumb you only use ~masu ~ます at the end of sentences, and if you're going to use ~zu ~ず, it's probably in the middle of the sentence, so you're probably not going to use it. For example:
  • nanimo sezu, machimashita
    何もせず、待ちました
    Without doing anything, [I] waited.
  • nanimo shimasezu, machimashita
    何もしませず、待ちました
    (same meaning, but nobody is going to say this, because you have two ~masu here, and you only needed one.)

If it does happen, it's because the formal variant of aru ある is gozaimasu ございます, and it always comes with ~masu in it. So if you needed to say arazu あらず, you would have to say gozaimasezu ございませず. But then again, you probably wouldn't need say arazu to begin with, so you won't need to say gozaimasezu either.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Leave your komento コメント in this posuto ポスト of this burogu ブログ with your questions about Japanese, doubts or whatever!

Comments containing spam, links to illegal websites, or deemed inappropriate will be removed.