Saturday, October 8, 2016

kono, sono, ano, dono この, その, あの, どの

In Japanese, kono, sono, ano, dono この, その, あの, どの mean "this," "that," and "what." They're kosoado words very much like kore, sore, are, dore これ, それ, あれ, どれ, except they're used as adjectives instead of as nouns.

Note that sono その and ano あの are also interjections, and that dono どの can also mean the honorific dono 殿.

このたい焼きが僕っ・・・です!!
Manga: Boku no Hero Academia 僕のヒーローアカデミア (Chapter 48)

Demonstrative Pronouns

Like all other kosoado pronouns, kono, sono, ano, dono refer to different things according to their prefix:
  • kono この
    This [something]. (close to me.)
  • sono その
    That [something]. (close to you.)
  • ano あの
    That [something]. (far from us.)
  • dono どの
    What [something]?

Note that kono, sono, ano, dono practically always come before a noun. That is, you can't say just kono to say "this." You must say kono X to say "this X." Some examples:

このたい焼きが僕っ・・・です!!
Manga: Boku no Hero Academia 僕のヒーローアカデミア (Chapter 48)
  • Context: Midoriya realizes something about himself.
  • kono taiyaki ga boku'...desu!!
    このたい焼きが僕っ・・・です!!
    This taiyaki... is me!!
    • taiyaki たい焼き
      A sort of fish-shaped pancake.
  • Kono Subarashii Sekai ni Shukufuku wo!
    この素晴らしい世界に祝福を!
    Blessings for This Wonderful World
  • sono kao wa doushita?
    その顔はどうした?
    What's up with that face?
    What's up with [your] face?
    Why are you making that face?
  • sono tame nara nandemo suru
    そのためならなんでもする
    If it's for that purpose [I'll] do anything.
    • Whatever it takes!
  • sono kane wa doko kara dete-kita no ka?
    その金はどこから出てきたのか?
    That money, from where it came from?
    From where did that money come from?
  • ano ken wa dou narimashita ka?
    あの件はどうなりましたか?
    That matter, how it became?
    What became of that matter?

Grammatically, the noun after the pronoun doesn't need to be a single word. For example:
  • kono keeki
    このケーキ
    This cake.
  • ichigo ga notteiru
    いちごが乗っている
    The strawberry is mounted on.
    The strawberry is atop of.
  • ichigo ga notteiru keeki
    イチゴが乗っているケーキ
    A cake [which] a strawberry is mounted on.
    A cake with a strawberry on top.
  • ichigo no notteiru keeki
    イチゴの乗っているケーキ
    (same thing as above.)
  • kono ichigo no notteiru keeki
    このイチゴの乗っているケーキ
    This cake [which] a strawberry is mounted on.
    This cake with a strawberry on top.
    • Grammatically, "cake with a strawberry on top" is a noun phrase, which is why we can put kono before it.

Also, in Japanese sometimes the abstract nominalizer no の can be used instead of a concrete noun. For example:

このイチゴの のってるの ほほーー!
Manga: Yotsuba to! よつばと! (Chapter 10)
  • kono ichigo no notteru no
    このイチゴの のってる
    This one with a strawberry on top.
  • hoho---!
    ほほーー!
    (Santa-like laugh.)

その vs. あの

The difference between sono その and ano あの is that sono is something close to the listener, while ano is something far from both the listener and the speaker. For example:
  • kono hako この箱
    This box. (here, in my hands.)
  • sono hako その箱
    That box. (in your hands.)
  • ano hako あの箱
    That box. (in that guy's hands over there.)

How kosoado words work, こそあど. An animated gif diagram.

There's even a couple of phrases that illustrate this perfectly:
  • kono yo この世
    "This world."
    • As in our world.
    • The world of the living.
    • kono yo ni sonzai shinai
      この世に存在しない
      It doesn't exist in this world.
    • kono yo kara kiero!
      この世から消えろ!
      Disappear from this world! (i.e. die!)
  • ano yo あの世
    "That world."
    • As in, the world that's not mine or yours, not ours.
    • The world of the dead. Afterlife. Hell, heaven, etc.
    • ano yo ni okutte yaru
      あの世に送ってやる
      I'll send you to that world. (i.e. I'm gonna kill you.)

vs. これ, それ, あれ, どれ

The difference between kono, sono, ano, dono and kore, sore, are, dore is that one group is made out of adjectives, while the other group is made out of nouns.

Basically, when you say "this" in English, that's a noun. But when you say "this cake," then "this" is an adjective, and "cake" is the noun. In Japanese, there are different words for these two this's: kore and kono.
  • kore ga hoshii
    これが欲しい
    This is wanted.
    I want this.
  • kono keeki ga hoshii
    このケーキが欲しい
    This cake is wanted.
    I want this cake.

あ 私これ このチョコレートケーキください
Manga: Yotsuba to! よつばと! (Chapter 10)
  • Context: choosing a cake.
  • a, watashi kore
    あ 私これ
    Ah, [for] me, this.
  • kono chokoreeto
    keeki kudasai

    このチョコレートケーキください
    Give [me] this chocolate cake.
  • hai はい
    Okay.
    • Works like "roger that" in English, but is used more normally.

Toward People

Unlike kore, sore, are, the words kono, sono, ano can be used toward people without disrespecting them, so long as they don't qualify a disrespectful noun.

For example, the noun hito 人, "person," is a noun that's often used with the pronouns.

ちょっとお金貸してくれない? なんですかこの人!? quote from manga Gabriel DropOut ガヴリールドロップアウト (Chapter 24)
Manga: Gabriel DropOut, Gavuriiru Doroppuauto ガヴリールドロップアウト (Chapter 24)
  • Context: the speaker is walking around when all of sudden this girl shows up and...
  • chotto okane kashite kurenai?
    ちょっとお金貸してくれない?
    Won't [you] lend [me] a little money?
  • nandesuka kono hito!?
    なんですかこの人!?
    What's up with this person!?
    What's up with this [girl]!?
  • She just asked money from a complete stranger!

Another noun is ko 子, which means literally "child," but can be used like hito 人 to refer to other people. There's a dozen peculiarities about this word, see how ko 子 works for details.

嬢ちゃん!あんたもちょっとはあの子を見習いな。 quote from manga Black Lagoon (Chapter 9)
Manga: Black Lagoon (Chapter 9)
  • Context: an old woman gives advice to an adult woman.
  • jouchan!
    嬢ちゃん!
    [Hey]!
  • anta mo
    chotto wa
    ano ko wo
    minarai na.

    あんたもちょっとはあの子を見習いな。
    You [should] learn a little more [from] that [boy].
    • Here, "that boy" refers to Rock, who is an adult man, but nonetheless a kid to the speaker who's a much older woman.
    • anta あんた
      anata あなた
      You.
    • mo chotto もちょっと
      mou chotto もうちょっと
      A little more.
    • wo mi-narau を見習う
      To see and learn from. (to learn something by watching how someone else does it.)

Emphasis

The words kono, sono, ano can be used to add emphasis to the noun if the noun is already unique.

That is, normally, when you have two things you can call by the same word, like two "cars," you must say "this car" or "that car" in order to specify which car you're talking about.

But sometimes you have a word that can only refer to one thing. For example, say you're talking about the prince. Since it's the prince, not a prince, we can infer there's only one prince: the prince. Adding "this" or "that" before it is redundant: there's no "this prince" or "that prince," it's only one prince.

In Japanese, doing this would add emphasis to the word:
  • ano ouji-sama ga sonna koto wo?!
    あの王子様がそんなことを?!
    THAT prince [did] [such] thing?!
    • That one? The one that would never do such thing, did it?
    • I can't believe it! Outrageous, just outrageous, I dare say!

This is most notably seen in phrases like kono ore この俺, "this me."
  • kono ore ga itteiru
    この俺が言っている
    THIS me is saying it.
    • Not anybody else: THIS me.
    • Are you doubting MY word?
    • Are you implying that I am lying?

Which's mostly used by characters who are very full of themselves.

全く下世話な愚民共この私を誰だと思ってるの? quote from manga Kaguya-sama wa Kokurasetai ~Tensai-Tachi no Ren'ai Zunousen かぐや様は告らせたい~天才たちの恋愛頭脳戦~ (chapter 1)
Manga: Kaguya-sama wa Kokurasetai ~Tensai-Tachi no Ren'ai Zunousen~ かぐや様は告らせたい~天才たちの恋愛頭脳戦~ (Chapter 1)
  • mattaku
    gesewa na gumin-domo
    全く下世話な愚民共
    [What a lot of prattling fools.]
    • gesewa na 下世話な
      [Someone] who chit-chats, prattles.
    • gumin 愚民
      Foolish people.
  • kono watashi wo dare dato omotteru no?
    この私を誰だと思ってるの?
    Who do [they] think this me is?
    • Who do they think I am?

It doesn't need to be used with a personal pronoun. Sometimes it's used with the person's own name:

kono Dio da! このディオだッ! panel from manga JoJo's Bizarre Adventure, JoJo no Kimyou na Bouken ジョジョの奇妙な冒険
Manga: "JoJo's Bizarre Adventure," JoJo no Kimyou na Bouken ジョジョの奇妙な冒険

Swearing

Similarly, the word kono この can be used when swearing, in which case "this" ends up becoming "you" most of the time. For example:
  • kono baka!
    このバカ!
    This idiot!
    [You] idiot!
  • kono yarou!
    この野郎!
    This guy!
    This [bastard]!
    [You bastard]!

いい加減にしやがれ、この野郎!!! transcript from manga Zatch Bell! / Konjiki no Gasshu!! 金色のガッシュ!!
Manga: Zatch Bell! / Konjiki no Gasshu!! 金色のガッシュ!! (Chapter 5)
  • ii kagen ni shiyagare,
    いい加減にしやがれ
    • [That's enough],
    • [Stop that],
    • [Cut it off],
  • kono yarou!!!
    この野郎!!!
    [You bastard]!!!

Sometimes kono alone already implies wrath.

仕方…なく… こ……の…… transcript from manga Zatch Bell! / Konjiki no Gasshu!! 金色のガッシュ!!
Manga: Zatch Bell! / Konjiki no Gasshu!! 金色のガッシュ!!
  • Context: Zatch did something he shouldn't have, Kiyomaro is mad.
  • shikata... naku...
    仕方…なく…
    • [It couldn't be helped.]
    • [There was no other way.] (more literally)
  • ko......no......
    こ……の……
    • Th......is......
    • [You...... little......]

Using dono どの

The pronoun dono どの can be used to ask "what" or "which" of a thing, but it's not as often used as one would expect, because there are reasons to use other pronouns instead of it.

For starters, dono is an adjective. It must come before a noun. So, obviously, you need to say the noun, too, besides saying dono. In a lot of cases, that noun can already be inferred from context, which makes using "dono noun" needlessly explicit.

For example, if you're talking about flowers, you don't say "which flower do you want?" Because you're already talking about the flowers. You'd say just "which one do you want?" as you point to the flowers you can see with your own eyes. Or even "which do you want?"

Similarly, there are many cases docchi, dore, and even nani are used instead of dono.

Besides that, take a phrase like this:
  • dono manga ga suki desu ka?
    どの漫画が好きですか?
    Which manga do you like?

This is a very good question. Except that the following question often makes more sense:
  • donna manga ga suki desu ka?
    どんな漫画が好きですか?
    Which kind of manga do you like?

It can be the difference between getting "Naruto" as the answer and getting "manga about the feudal Japanese culture" as the answer.

Similarly:
  • dono pokemon wo sodatereba ii no?
    どのポケモンを育てればいいの?
    Which pokemon should [I] raise? (tame, train, level up, etc.)
  • tsugi wa dono anime wo miru ka na?
    次はどのアニメを見るかな?
    Next which anime [I'll] watch, [I wonder]?

The only one a bit more complicated is a phrase like this:
  • dono you na goyouken deshouka?
    どのようなご用件でしょうか?
    What is the matter?
    What brings you here?

That's because you よう is a light noun. The word youken 用件 means "matter." So the phrase is more or less "which kind of matter" do you want to discuss.

One valid answer, grammatically, would be "this kind of matter," kono you na youken このような用件, but nobody will actually say that. Instead, they'll just explain the matter: "oh, I want to discuss X with you."

Possessive Usage

Sometimes, kono, sono, ano can express possessive aspects similar to those of no-adjectives. This only happens in a few cases, but it's important to know about them nonetheless.

Note that ano あの generally feels more distant than sono その when talking about something.

With Time

When the words kono, sono, ano come after nouns for time, they end up referring to a time pertaining to some event.

この日, その日, あの日

  • hi
    Day.
  • kono hi
    この日
    This day.
    • Not necessarily "today." It can be a previous day mentioned by the speaker.
    • kono hi wo wasurenai
      この日を忘れない
      [I] won't forget this day.
    • kyou 今日
      Today.
  • sono hi
    その日
    That day. (in which something occurred.)
  • ano hi
    あの日
    That day. (in which something occurred.)

The phrase sono hi can refer to a "day," hi, that the listener mentioned: "oh, and on that day (you mentioned), was it raining?"

Both sono hi and ano hi can be used to talk about past days, but ano hi feels more distant, more in the past, than sono hi.

These same differences apply to other words of time. For example:
  • asa
    Morning.
  • kono asa
    この朝
    This morning.
    • In English, "this morning" is sometimes used to refer to today's morning. In Japanese, it's literally "this" morning. It can be a morning mentioned by the speaker previously, or it can be the morning that's occurring right now.
    • kesa 今朝
      Today's morning.
  • sono asa
    その朝
    That morning. (in which something occurred.)
    • This can be translated as in "the morning" when telling a story.
    • E.g. I left the door open. In the morning (sono asa), all my stuff was gone!
    • Here, sono asa refers to the morning after: "I left the door open."
  • ano asa
    あの朝
    That morning. (in the past.)
  • yoru
    Night.
  • kono yoru この夜
    This night.
  • sono yoru その夜
    That night.
  • ano yoru その夜
    That night.

この前, その前, その前

The words kono, sono, ano can qualify mae 前, "before," to talk about what happened before something.
  • kono mae
    この前
    This before.
    Before this.
    • The other day, something happened.
  • sono mae
    その前
    That before.
    Before that.
    • Doing that is important, but before that, we have to do something else first.
    • Before that happened...
  • ano mae
    あの前
    That before.
    Before that.
    • Before that thing which happened in the past happened...

To elaborate:
  • kono mae tenkou shite-kita
    この前転校してきた
    Before this, [he] transferred schools [to here].
    • tenkou suru 転校する
      To change schools.
    • shite-kuru してくる
      To come doing something. (e.g. to come here by transferring schools.)
  • sono mae ni kakunin sasete
    その前に確認させて
    Before that, let me confirm.
  • sono mae ni junbi shiyou
    その前に準備しよう
    Before that, let's prepare.

この後, その後, あの後

When the words kono, sono, ano qualify ato 後, "after," it works the same way:
  • kono ato
    この後
    After this.
  • sono ato
    その後
    After that.
  • ano ato
    あの後
    After that.

With Numbers

There's a few ways kono, sono, ano can be used with numbers. Actually, it's mostly just sono その that can be used with numbers.

私がその一人

Sometimes, no-adjectives can be used with numbers to create partitives. For example:
  • ni-bun no ichi
    二分の一
    One of two parts. One half.
  • touzokudan no hitori
    盗賊団の一人
    One person of the band of thieves.
    One of the band of thieves.

This can also happen with sono その.
  • watashi ga sono hitori
    私がその一人
    I'm that one person.
    • Can also mean:
    • I'm one person of that.
    • I'm one of those people, part of that group.

Another example:
  • kore ga sono ichibu
    これがその一部
    This is that one part.
    • This is one part of that.
    • Note: -bun is a part in mathematical fractions, -bu is for parts that compose things.
    • soshiki no ichibu suginai
      組織の一部に過ぎない
      Doesn't exceed one part of the organization.
      Is nothing but one part of the organization. (you thought you defeated the evil organization just by defeating this one small part of it? Haha!)

その1, その2, その3

The word sono その can also come directly behind a number like ichi, ni, san 一, 二, 三, to refer to the first, second, third, etc. of something.
  • sono ichi
    その一 (or その1)
    The number one of that.
    The first one of that.
    Its first.
  • sono ni
    その二 (or その2)
    The number two of that.
    The second one of that.
    Its second.
  • sono san
    その三 (or その3)
    The number three of that.
    The third one of that.
    Its third.

This could be, for example, iterating the rules of an agreement, competition, regulation, contract, or so on. The first of the student council's rules... the second of the student council's rules... etc.

ジョジョの奇妙な冒険第18巻もくじ
Manga: "JoJo's Bizarre Adventure," JoJo no Kimyou na Bouken ジョジョの奇妙な冒険 (Volume 18)
  • In JoJo, some chapters are parts of larger arcs. For example:
  • taiyou sono ichi
    太陽その①
    The Sun: the chapter number one of that.
    The Sun: its first.
    The Sun: Part 1.

Kanji

Although the pronouns kono, sono, ano, dono are normally written with hiragana, they do have kanji, so, in some rare cases, you may find them actually written with kanji:
  • kono 此の
  • sono 其の
  • ano 彼の
  • dono 何の

One reason they aren't written with kanji is that ano 彼の would be spelled the same way as kare no 彼の, "his." And dono 何の the same way as nan'no 何の. That would be too confusing, so people don't spell them with kanji.

Interjections

The words sono その and ano あの can also be used as interjections. The interjection ano あの is used when starting a conversation with someone, a way to ask "can I have your attention?" Just like "excuse me" in English.
  • ano, sumimasen, dareka imasu ka?
    あの、すみません、誰かいますか?
    Hello? Excuse me, is anybody there?

どうしたの?ちよちゃん あ あのっ 私 コンピューターって全然 触ったことなくてっ
Manga: Azumanga Daioh あずまんが大王 (Volume 2, Chapter May: Part 2)
  • doushita no?
    どうしたの?
    [What happened]?
  • Chiyo-chan ちよちゃん
    (character name.)
  • a ano' watashi
    konpyuutaa tte zenzen
    sawatta koto nakute

    あ あのっ 私 コンピューターって全然 触ったことなくてっ
    [Y... you see,] I've never touched a computer.
    • -koto nai ~ことない
      To have never done [something].

The interjection sono その is used when fumbling: when you're trying, you know, like... uh.... I mean, sono... when you're having trouble coming up with the words.

2 comments:

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  1. What does it mean when someone uses
    "Kono Ore" in a sentence?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Literally "this me." It's a way of saying, often dramatically in anime, that something unfitting happened to THIS me. Like, "THIS me lose a fight?!" as in, this monstrously-strong-me-who-has-a-history-of-never-losing-in-fights-since-elementary-school lose a fight?!

      Other examples include: forgetting stuff, mistaking one thing for another, blunders, etc. Though even for something like "THIS me-who-hates-romance fall in love?!" also works.

      Delete