Sunday, October 9, 2016

kou, sou, aa, dou こう, そう, ああ, どう

WIP: this article is incomplete and might change in the unforeseeable future.
In Japanese, kou, sou, aa, dou こう, そう, ああ, どう mean "this manner," "that manner (near you)," "that manner (far from us)," and "what manner?" They're kosoado words referring to manner.


An example of kou こう used in Japanese.
Manga: Yotsubato! よつばと! (Chapter 1)

Demonstrative Pronouns

Like any other kosoado pronoun, kou, sou, aa, dou differ by their prefix. One weird thing is that the third word is a-a, not a-ou as you'd expect, but you get used to it.
  • kou こう
    This way. The way I'm talking about.
    Like this.
    In this manner.
  • sou そう
    That way. The way you said.
    Like that. (near you.)
    In that manner (near you.)
  • aa ああ
    That way. The way neither of us are talking about.
    Like that. (far from us.)
    In that manner (far from us.)
  • dou どう
    What way? How?
    Like what?
    In what manner?

vs. こんな, そんな, あんな, どんな

The difference between kou, sou, aa, dou and konna, sonna, anna, donna is that kou, sou, aa, dou こう, そう, ああ, どう are adverbs, while konna, sonna, anna, donna こんな, そんな, あんな, どんな are adjectives.

This means that kou says "the verb is done like this," while konna says "the noun is like this." For example:
  • konna hon
    こんな
    A book like this.
  • kou suru
    こうする
    To do like this.
  • sonna koto
    そんなこと
    Something like that.
  • sou omou
    そう思う
    To think like that.

Examples

  • sore wa kou kaku
    それはこう書く
    That, [you] write like this.
  • naze kou natte-shimatta?!
    なぜこうなってしまった?!
    Why did [it] end up like this?!
  • kare wa kou itta...
    彼はこう言った・・・
    [He] said [it] like this...
  • kou sureba yokatta-n-da
    こうすればよかったんだ
    [It] would have been better if [I] had done it like this.
  • watashi wa sou omou
    私はそう思う
    I think like that.
    That is how I think.
    I agree with what [you] said.
    • Could be with what I said previously too.
  • sou wa ikemasen
    そうは行けません
    [It] can't go like that.
    That won't do.
    You can't do things that way. (I won't let you)
    • ikenai 行けない
      Can't go. (literally.)
      Used after something that isn't okay.
  • min'na aa desu ka?
    みんなああですか?
    Is everyone like that?
    Is everyone that way?
    • Not like me or you, like "that."
  • kono kuni wa dou naru?
    この国はどうなる?
    This country will become how?
    How is this country going to turn out?
    What will become of this country?

As always, any question asked with a do ど interrogative can be answered with a ko-so-a こそあdemonstrative. For example:
  • dou yatte asobu?
    どうやって遊ぶ?
    How do to play?
    What do [you] do in order to play [with this]?
こう こうやってあそぶの お おおーーっ!!
Manga: Yotsubato! よつばと! (Chapter 1)
  • kou, kou yatte asobu no
    こう こうやってあそぶの
    Like this, [you] do like this to play.
  • o, oooo'!!
    お おおーー!!
    Oh, oooohh!!

Using そう

The word sou そう can be used to agree or refer to things that another interlocutor has said or that the speaker himself said earlier. This is kind of tricky to understand.

Verbs like "to say," "to think" are, well, verbs, so if you use sou そう with them it means "to think that way," "to say that way." In which case the "way" refers to what was said or thought.
  • kou itta
    こう言った
    To say like this.
    To have said this. These words.

When they're used with sou そう, it can refer to what someone else said.
  • ore wa nihongo ga muzukashii to omou
    俺は日本語が難しいと思う
    I think that Japanese is difficult.
  • watashi mo sou omou
    私もそう思う
    I, too, think that way.
    I agree with that thought.

Above, two people think alike.

The word sou そう can also be used to refer to a way you have mentioned yourself.
  • nihongo wa muzukashii, watashi wa sou omotta
    日本語は難しい、私はそう思った
    Japanese is difficult, I thought that way.
    Japanese is difficult, so I thought.

Above, a single speakers refers to a previously mentioned thought, implying he doesn't think that way anymore.

The word sou そう isn't just a kosoado pronoun. It's also a suffix and interjection.
  • oishi-sou da
    美味しそう
    It seems tasty.
  • sou da!
    そうだ!
    That's right!

See the article about sou そう for details.

そう vs. ああ

There's a couple of differences between sou そう and aa ああ.

First off, aa ああ can also mean "yeah," or "yes." This is often the meaning of aa ああ you'll see, and also the meaning that's not a kosoado word.

The kosoado word aa ああ isn't used very often. In order to use it, you need to be talking about how something is that isn't you, that isn't whom you're talking to, and that wasn't mentioned by either of you.

Overwhelmingly, you'll use sou そう instead.

見れば見るほどフシギだよねー なんでコレがああなっちゃうわけ 髪は・・・入学前日近所の子にガムをひっつけられて・・・
Manga: Ouran High School Host Club, Ouran Koukou Hosuto-Bu 桜蘭高校ホスト部 (Chapter 3)
  • Context: the club wonders how Haruhi changed her appearance so drastically.
  • mireba
    miru hodo
    fushigi da yo ne~~
    見れば見るほどフシギだよねー
    The more [you] see it the stranger [it] gets.
  • nande
    kore ga aanacchau wake
    なんでコレがああなっちゃうわけ
    For what reason did this ended up becoming like that?
    • This: in middle school, chuugakkou 中学校, Haruhi looked like a normal girl.
    • Like that: in high school, koukou 高校, Haruhi looks like a boy.
    • Although Haruhi is in front of them, the word used isn't sou そう but aa ああ. That's because the guys aren't talking to her, they're talking about her. She's a third party in the conversation.
    • kou ichi 高1
      First year of high school.
    • nacchau なっちゃう
      natte-shimau なってしまう
      End up becoming.
  • kami wa... nyuugaku zenjitsu kinjo no ko ni gamu wo hittsukerarete...
    髪は・・・入学前日近所の子にガムをひっつけられて・・・
    The hair... days before entering school, a [chewing] gum was [put on it] by a neighborhood kid...
    • Hikari starts explaining how she became "like that," aa ああ, or, from her point of view, "like this," kou こう.

Using どう

The interrogative pronoun dou どう is a bit tricky because it can be used to say a lot of things.

As we've already seen, it can be combined with yaru やる to ask how to do something.
  • dou yatte katsu?
    どうやって勝つ?
    How do to win?

どうです

The word dou どう can be used with a copula can also be used to ask how something is or was.
  • dou da? どうだ?
    dou desu? どうです?
    dou desu ka? どうですか?
    How is it?
    • In particular, dou da can mean "how do you like that?!" when a character is taunting another with a prank, an attack, or even showing off.
    • kore de dou da?!
      これでどうだ?!
      With this how is it?!
      How do you feel about this?!
    • *shoots missile* "not so weak now, am I?! Hahahahahaha!"
  • dou datta? どうだった?
    dou deshita? どうでした?
    dou deshita ka? どうでしたか?
    How was that?
    How did it go?

The word dou どう alone can also be used to ask questions, specially when asking someone's opinion about something.
  • dou?
    どう?
    How is it?
    How is the taste? Do you like it?
    How do I look? Do you like it?
    How is it going? Did you hack the enemy's mainframe yet?
    How does it look? Do you like my drawing?

どうする

It can also be combined with suru する in various ways, each with very weird meanings. For example:
  • dou suru?
    どうする?
    How do? (literally.)
    What are [you] going to do? (actual meaning.)
  • dou shita?
    どうした?
    How did?
    What happened?
    • Used to ask what's bothering someone, troubles, worries, and so on.
  • dou shiyou!
    どうしよう!
    How let's do?!
    What should I do?!
    • Used when troubled about a thing, not knowing what to do about it.
  • dou sureba ii?
    どうすればいい?
    If done how is good?
    How should I do it so it turns out goo?
    What should I do?
  • dou shitara ii ka wakaranai
    どうしたらいいか分からない
    How done would be good isn't understood.
    I don't know what would be good if I did.
    I don't know what I should do.

~てどうする

The form -te dou suru ~てどうする is probably its weirdest iteration.
  • asoko ni itte dou suru?
    あそこに行ってどうする?
    [You] go there, do how?
    [You'll] go there, and then do what?
    • This is normally used when someone says "I'll go there," but that sounds like a bad idea, so another person asks: assuming you do go there, you'll do what once you get there? What's your plan? In the sense going there is meaningless.
    • From there, it's often used whenever someone has a stupid idea or did something stupid, and someone is saying they shouldn't do that.
  • shinde dou suru?!
    死んでどうする?!
    You die, then what?
    What good will come out of it if you die?
    If you die, what happens?
  • makete dou suru?!
    負けてどうする?!
    If you lose [the fight], what happens?!
  • kibou wo ushinatte dou suru?!
    希望を失ってどうする?!
    If [one] loses hope, then what will happen?!

どうでもいい

Like other kosoado interrogatives, it doesn't mean "how," it simply means a way that can't be specified. So it can be used to say "however" in the "any how" sense.
  • dou demo ii
    どうでもいい
    Any how is good!
    However is good!
    Whatever way is good.
    It doesn't matter how!
    It doesn't matter!

どうもこうもない

It's also used in an expression to say any "how" doesn't exist.
  • dou mo kou mo nai!
    どうもこうもない!
    Any way and also this way is nonexistent!
    There is no way that exists!
    None of that is going to work!

Single-Word Phrases

For reference, what kou, sou, aa and dou mean in single-word phrases.
  • kou? こう?
    Like this?
    In this way?
    Am I doing this right?
  • kou! こう!
    This way!
  • sou? そう?
    Is that so?
    Is it the way you said?
  • sou! そう!
    Like that!
  • aa? ああ?
    Is it that way? The way that guy is doing?
  • dou? どう?
    How is it?
    Is it good? Is it bad? Say something!

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